Effects of Lipoprotein Lipase and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Gene Variants on Metabolic Syndrome Traits
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) play important role in lipid homeostasis, insulin resistance and adipogenesis, and their gene variability could be considered as predictive genetic markers for metabolic syndrome (MetSy). The aim of the study was to estimate possible associations of PPARG (Pro12Ala) and LPL PvuII (-/+) polymorphisms with MetSy and its traits. Study included 527 subjects. According to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definitions, subjects were classified into the metabolic syndrome group and control group. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. In the total sample, LPL variants were associated with waist circumference (χ2=7.263, d.f.=2, p=0.026) and with BMI (χ2=6.549, d.f.=2, p=0.038), where PvuII (+/+) genotype carriers had the highest risk for increased waist circumference (specific PvuII (+/+) vs. others analysis χ2=7.033, p=0.008) and increased BMI (specific Pvu II(+/+) vs. others analysis χ2=5.154, p=0.023). LPL gene variants were also associated with HDL-C levels (χ2=6.901, d.f.=2, p=0.032), where PvuII (-/-) genotype carriers had higher HDL-C values in comparison to others (specific Pvu (+/+) vs. others analysis χ2=6.504, p=0.011). Furthermore, PvuII (-) allele carriers had significantly lower glucose (allele based analysis Add Value=-0.0878, χ2=5.878, d.f.=1, p=0.015). Significant interaction was detected between PPARG and LPL that affected HDL-C levels in male population (χ2=11.790, d.f.=1, p=0.0006) in the manner that Ala/PvuII(+) contributed to the lowest HDL-C values (Specific Ala/ Pvu(+) vs. others analysis was χ2=11.750, p=0.0006). According to obtained results LPL and PPARG gene variants could be susceptibility factors of obesity and lipid status, contributing to development of MetSy, particularly in males. Because of antiatherogenic function of HDL-C, the identification of genetic variants associated with HDL-C can provide useful information related to genotype-phenotype relationships. Since the interplay between PPARG and LPL gene and gender seems to be significant it could point to the personalized behavioural recommendations for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.