Expression of the BMP -2, -4 and -7 and their antagonists gremlin, chordin, noggin and follistatin during ectopic osteogenesis

Luka Đudarić, Sanja Zoričić Cvek, Olga Cvijanović, Veljko Šantić, Ivana Marić, Željka Crnčević-Orlić, Dragica Bobinac


Molecular network of the osteogenic BMPs and extracellular inhibitors maintains homeostasis of the skeletal tissues. It is important to determine relationship between BMP-2, -4 and -7 and their inhibitors: gremlin, follistatin, chordin and noggin during normal osteogenesis. To determine their expression pattern we conducted investigation by inducing ectopic bone formation in rats. The results shown that levels of the BMP-2 and BMP-4 expression in chondrocytes are similar to noggin and follistatin. The latter BMPs and inhibitors have increased levels of the expression at day 14th of the osteogenesis, which suggests their important roles in early phases of the chondrogenesis. Gremlin and chordin have shown increased levels of expression in late phase of chondrogenesis, which suggests their important role in regulation of the osteogenesis initiation. In this study, BMPs and inhibitors have the highest levels of expression at 21st day in osteocytes, which suggests their strong interactions in osteogenesis.


ectopic osteogenesis, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, gremlin, chordin, noggin, follistatin

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